Lateral View

Excessive Forward Lean

    Overactive (3)
  • Lateral Gastrocnemius - accelerates plantar flexion and externally rotates tibia.
  • Gastrocnemius
  • Soleus - accelerates plantar flexion and externally rotates tibia.
  • Soleus
  • Rectus Femoris - accelerates knee extension and hip flexion.
  • Rectus Femoris
    Underactive (4)
  • Anterior Tibialis - ankle dorsiflexion and inversion.
  • Anterior Tibialis
  • Gluteus Maximus - accelerates hip extension and external rotation.
  • Gluteus Maximus
  • Transverse Abdominis (Instrinsic Core Stabilizer) - increases intra-abdominal pressure. Supports the abdominal viscera.
  • Transverse Abdominis
  • Multifidus (Instrinsic Core Stabilizer) - spinal extension and contralateral rotation.
  • Multifidus
  • Transversospinalis: Thoracis Division (Instrinsic Core Stabilizer) - produces spinal extension and lateral flexion; extension and contralateral rotation of the head.
  • Transversospinalis Thoracis
  • Internal Oblique (Instrinsic Core Stabilizer) - spinal flexion (bilateral), lateral flexion, and ipsilateral rotation.
  • Internal Oblique
  • Diaphragm (Instrinsic Core Stabilizer) - pulls the central tendon inferiorly, increasing the volume in the thoracic cavity.
  • Diaphragm
  • Iliocostalis: Lumborum Division (Erector Spinae) - spinal extension, rotation, and lateral flexion.
  • Iliocostalis Lumborum
  • Iliocostalis: Thoracis Division (Erector Spinae) - spinal extension, rotation, and lateral flexion.
  • Iliocostalis Thoracis
  • Longissimus: Thoracis Division (Erector Spinae) - spinal extension, rotation, and lateral flexion.
  • Longissimus Thoracis
  • Spinalis: Thoracis Division (Erector Spinae) - spinal extension, rotation, and lateral flexion.
  • Spinalis Thoracis

    Low Back Arches

      Overactive (2)
    • Rectus Femoris - accelerates knee extension and hip flexion.
    • Rectus Femoris
  • Latissimus Dorsi - shoulder extension, adduction, and internal rotation.
  • Latissimus Dorsi
      Underactive (3)
    • Biceps Femoris-Long Head - accelerates knee flexion, hip extension, and tibial external rotation.
    • Biceps Femoris-Long Head
    • Biceps Femoris-Short Head - accelerates knee flexion and tibial external rotation.
    • Biceps Femoris-Short Head
    • Semimembranosus - accelerates knee flexion, hip extension, and tibial internal rotation.
    • Semimembranosus
    • Semitendinosus - accelerates knee flexion, hip extension, and tibial internal rotation.
    • Semitendinosus
    • Transverse Abdominis (Instrinsic Core Stabilizer) - increases intra-abdominal pressure. Supports the abdominal viscera.
    • Transverse Abdominis
    • Multifidus (Instrinsic Core Stabilizer) - spinal extension and contralateral rotation.
    • Multifidus
    • Transversospinalis: Thoracis Division (Instrinsic Core Stabilizer) - produces spinal extension and lateral flexion; extension and contralateral rotation of the head.
    • Transversospinalis Thoracis
    • Internal Oblique (Instrinsic Core Stabilizer) - spinal flexion (bilateral), lateral flexion, and ipsilateral rotation.
    • Internal Oblique
    • Diaphragm (Instrinsic Core Stabilizer) - pulls the central tendon inferiorly, increasing the volume in the thoracic cavity.
    • Diaphragm
    • Gluteus Maximus - accelerates hip extension and external rotation.
    • Gluteus Maximus

    Low Back Rounds

      Overactive (2)
    • Biceps Femoris-Long Head - accelerates knee flexion, hip extension, and tibial external rotation.
    • Biceps Femoris-Long Head
    • Biceps Femoris-Short Head - accelerates knee flexion and tibial external rotation.
    • Biceps Femoris-Short Head
    • Semimembranosus - accelerates knee flexion, hip extension, and tibial internal rotation.
    • Semimembranosus
    • Semitendinosus - accelerates knee flexion, hip extension, and tibial internal rotation.
    • Semitendinosus
    • Adductor Magnus, Anterior Fibers - accelerates hip adduction, flexion, and internal rotation.
    • Adductor Magnus, Anterior Fibers
    • Adductor Magnus, Posterior Fibers - accelerates hip adduction, extension, and external rotation.
    • Adductor Magnus, Posterior Fibers
      Underactive (3)
    • Gluteus Maximus - accelerates hip extension and external rotation.
    • Gluteus Maximus
    • Iliocostalis: Lumborum Division (Erector Spinae) - spinal extension, rotation, and lateral flexion.
    • Iliocostalis Lumborum
    • Iliocostalis: Thoracis Division (Erector Spinae) - spinal extension, rotation, and lateral flexion.
    • Iliocostalis Thoracis
    • Longissimus: Thoracis Division (Erector Spinae) - spinal extension, rotation, and lateral flexion.
    • Longissimus Thoracis
    • Spinalis: Thoracis Division (Erector Spinae) - spinal extension, rotation, and lateral flexion.
    • Spinalis Thoracis
    • Psoas - accelerates hip flexion and external rotation, extends and rotates lumbar spine.
    • Psoas
    • Rectus Femoris - accelerates knee extension and hip flexion.
    • Rectus Femoris

    Arms Fall Forward / Elbows Flex

      Overactive (4)
    • Latissimus Dorsi - shoulder extension, adduction, and internal rotation.
    • Latissimus Dorsi
    • Pectoralis Major - shoulder flexion (clavicular fibers), horizontal adduction, and internal rotation.
    • Pectoralis Major
    • Pectoralis Minor - protracts the scapula.
    • Pectoralis Minor
    • Teres Major - shoulder internal rotation, adduction, and extension.
    • Teres Major
      Underactive (5)
    • Middle Trapezius - scapular retraction.
    • Middle Trapezius
    • Lower Trapezius - scapular depression.
    • Lower Trapezius
    • Rhomboids - produces scapular retraction and downward rotation.
    • Rhomboids
    • Posterior Deltoid - shoulder extension and external rotation.
    • Rhomboids
    • Supraspinatus - abduction of the arm.
    • Supraspinatus
    • Infraspinatus - shoulder external rotation.
    • Infraspinatus
    • Teres Minor - shoulder external rotation.
    • Teres Minor
    • Subscapularis - shoulder internal rotation.
    • Subscapularis

    Forward Head

      Overactive
    • Sternocleidomastoid - cervical flexion, rotation, and lateral flexion.
    • Sternocleidomastoid
    • Levator Scapulae - cervical extension, lateral flexion and ipsilateral rotation when the scapulae is anchored; Assists in elevation and downward rotation of the scapulae.
    • Levator Scapulae
    • Scalenes - cervical flexion, rotation and lateral flexion; Assists rib elevation during inhalation.
    • Scalenes
    • Upper Trapezius - cervical extension, lateral flexion and rotation; scapular elevation.
    • Upper Trapezius
      Underactive
    • Longus Colli - cervical flexion, lateral flexion, and ipsilateral rotation.
    • Longus Colli
    • Longus Capitus - cervical flexion and lateral flexion.
    • Longus Capitus
    • Longissimus: Capitis Division - cervical extension, rotation, and lateral flexion.
    • Longissimus: Capitis Division
    • Spinalis: Capitis Division - spinal extension, rotation, and lateral flexion.
    • Spinalis: Capitis Division
    • Transversospinalis: Capitus Division - produces spinal extension and lateral flexion; extension and contralateral rotation of the head.
    • Transversospinalis: Capitus Division
    • Lower Trapezius - scapular depression.
    • Lower Trapezius
    • Rhomboids - produces scapular retraction and downward rotation.
    • Rhomboids